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Thread: Optimal man HD install, be-ROOT, multi-boot, NTFS-write, etc

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    Jan 2004
    Tacoma, WA

    Optimal man HD install, be-ROOT, multi-boot, NTFS-write, etc

    This manual is updated frequently as I’ve found something useful to note for friends and myself.
    0). For a newbie. 1). Optimal man HD install. 2). Multi-booting, not-bootable cd drive. 3). Be full ROOT. 4). Resizing winxp hard drive – ntfsresize. 5). Compact winxp sp2 installation. 6). Captive-ntfs, writing to winxp ntfs. 7). Optimal hd partitioning. 8 ). Custom programs installation to "knoppix core". 9). HD and Knoppix-3.8 UnionFS. 10). Full control for knoppix initiation.
    EXHIBIT A: Video settings adjustment . Quick tips. Slipstream sp2 to winxp cd. Examples of the customized and /etc/profile

    0. For a newbie
    Look at the top of this screen and “Get Knoppix” as FREE ~700 MB KNOPPIXxxx.iso cd image. Next, burn knoppix bootable cd using: “burn cd from saved iso image ” option in a cd burning software like Nero (5 days trail is here , but freeware CDBurnerXP Pro does the same job well); winxp does not offer such opportunity, but JohnPipe found a small plugin that allows winxp to burn cd from an iso image without any special software.
    Your OS may show 698 or 715…, but these are simply different units (see “Quick Tips”) of the same iso file which can be burned to a standard 700 MB cd.

    The follow managers provide smoothly, multy-chanels, resumed after a break download, and you can get the cd image even with a dialup connection (in ~2 days): ; . If you prefer/forced to use BitTorrent (good for fast, but bad for slow connection), this agent works better than the original BitTorrent.

    You can boot and run Knoppix completely from CD without any hard drive (hd), but slow and keep cd drive busy; or make full hd installation, and next completely reinstall knoppix after a new version release. But knoppix generosity is ability to use without a big mess . But down side is a problem with personal settings saving and programs installation.

    Cheat code home=/dev/... creates /dev/.../home/knoppix at each boot. At persistence home you should set size of a filesystem image without knowledge how big it will be, and it is not convenient to work with filesystem image, especially to make emergency corrections from other booted Linux, e.g., rescued live Knoppix cd.

    Not convinced, consider this. You need at least 2.5 GB partition to make hd installation. OK, not big deal today, but if you have a modern hd, you have a modern pc, and knoppix without big clutter runs from core just fine on modern pc. So, "poor man install" should be called "rich man install"; but if you have a slow pc you may consider full hd installation to speed up performance.

    Optimal way is to copy personal and configuration files to hd and connect they to knoppix root / at each boot; your changing will be saved on hd immediately and will NOT disappear at knoppix reboot.

    1. Optimal man HD install
    User knoppix has permission to work only in home directory /ramdisk/home/knoppix, and you should be root (see below) to make changing in other place.

    Run live knoppix cd; use cfdisk or qtparted in KDE to make Linux partition with minimum 730 MB. If you have only one ntfs partition, use ntfsresize (see below) to resize hd.

    Partition Placement: Modern hard disks use zoned bit recording ( ), which means they hold more data per track at the outermost edge of the disk than they do at the innermost edge; as a result, the outer tracks tend to deliver better performance than the inner tracks do. Since the outer tracks are used first, this means that the first partition on a physical disk volume will be faster than subsequent ones. If you have certain files that require higher performance than others, placing them in a partition at the beginning of the disk is preferred.

    I place only knoppix core and /boot files in 730 MB /dev/hda2, the second fastest partition after only 3 GB (see below) the first fastest winxp partition; and make ext2 file system with bigger cluster size (majority CPU read 4096 blocks), large file support, and without reservation for super user:
    mke2fs /dev/hda2 -F -m 0 -T largefile4

    You can easily do many operations in the Midnight Commander ( mc ) or kde desktop, but text commands are presented for better understanding and to encourage using small scripts which make Linux live a little bit easy.

    Copy from knoppix cdrom to hd:
    mkdir -p /mypat
    mount -t ext2 /dev/hda2 /mypat -o rw,exec
    mkdir -p /mypat/KNOPPIX /mypat/boot
    cp -a /cdrom/KNOPPIX/KNOPPIX /mypat/KNOPPIX
    cp -a /cdrom/boot/isolinux/{linux26,minirt26.gz} /mypat/boot/
    cp -a /ramdisk /mypat ; # Actually, you don’t need to copy /ramdisk now as at the first Knoppix boot with my and/or modified linuxrc, /home /tmp /ramdisk (and /etc /var for k37) will be moved to hd, and next, you can boot Knoppix either from hd or cd using saved on hd in /mypat directories.

    Make lilo.conf something like this:
    # So, Lilo will be installed to /dev/hda2 mbr, not disturbing main hda MBR

    append=" fromhd=/dev/hda2 mypat=/cdrom k38 myconfig=scan ramdisk_size=100000 init=/etc/init quiet dma "

    # All rest pointed in the next append "... " for fc3rt is optional.
    # When you reboot knoppix from hd, this hd partition will be mounted as /cdrom. So, if you want to place your files to this partition you should point to it as mypat=/cdrom. I prefer to use the next formatted for small files /dev/hda3 partition and set mypat=/dev/hda3 ; my or lunixrc will mount it as /mypat. In addition to setting Knoppix version k37 k38 and rmd also give different $mdr/ramdisk$kn names and you can alternately boot different or the same Knoppix to different directories.
    # Anything passed to kernel as X=y became global (type env to see) and can be used anywhere as e.,g.: z=$X
    # Press Alt to see boot menu when you see LILO 22.6.1 boot line

    # 40 MB base Linux (10 MB in fc3rt.gz) combined from the last Fedora Core 3, which I boot to RAM, incl., to fix Knoppix boot or hd filesystem problem
    append=" init=/etc/init ramdisk_size=100000 nomce vsync=56 lang=us quiet dma noeject noprompt 2 nofirewire nopcmcia nodhcp noscsi nousb noapm noddc nosound noaudio noswap "
    # apm=power-off acpi=force apic=force nodma noagp noapic wheelmouse fb800x600 screen=800x600 xmodule=fb xmodule=vesa 2


    Next, continue running live Knoppix cd :
    [ -h /boot ] && unlink /boot ; mkdir -p /boot
    mount –bind /mypat/boot /boot
    # You can run lilo if /etc/lilo.conf ; but I don't understand why lilo looks for /etc/lilo.conf, it would be better to keep it in /boot/lilo.conf; so for now run:
    lilo -C /boot/lilo.conf -P ignore ; # -P ignore ~to ignore partition table, but only when run Lilo from knoppix cd; re-run Lilo after booting knoppix from hd
    # look inside /boot ; as we mount --bind /mypat/boot /boot you'll see files from /mypat/boot

    Next, find the kde desktop penguin icon and save knoppix configuration to /dev/hda2. Move configs.tbz to other place, e.g., /mypat/boot and floppy as your emergency settings restoration. Do this periodically, but better to other partition or a floppy; at least, don't replace and loose your customized .

    Next, copy the script from the EXHIBIT A to the /mypat/ .

    2. Multi-booting, not-bootable cd drive
    Now you can boot knoppix from hd. But before do this visit and install simple Smart Boot Manager. This tiny program doesn't touch any mbr, and be installed in the sector even before hd MBR, or you can install and use it from a floppy (of course, slow, but good for emergency). You can also use XOSL, but it requires an additional partition. Normally, a boot manager can also boot cd drives that are NOT-BOOTABLE by bios .

    At boot, Smart Boot Manager presents a screen with pc devices having bootable sectors. Choose: "NTFS Primary 1" to boot winxp from /dev/hda1, or "Linux Primary 2", and get Knoppix, which will boot and run farter from native Linux partition. Reinstall Smart Boot Manager after a partition creating or deleting.

    You can rename a file, e.g., linux26, or move it to any other directory within a partition, but Lilo still be able to find it, as it’ll reside on the same physical location changing only its path. But a partition defragmentation may move a file to another place, and Lilo should be re-running before rebooting, as previous Lilo would not find linux26.

    You also can boot Linux from DOS. You need files: linux26, minirt26.gz, and loadlin.exe . The length of a DOS command line can be only 127 bytes. To pass more command to kernel simply use two _.bat files. The first with only one line: loadlin.exe @b-kn265.bat . It'll start the second b-kn265.bat where place line by line (very convenient to uncheck by placing # at a line beginning) all you want to pass to kernel (see lilo.conf above). But this is legacy very very slow method, and I keep it for any emergency).

    You can also boot Linux from winxp boot.ini. After running Lilo, copy Linux partition boot sector to a file dd if=/dev/hda2 of=/d/b-h2 bs=512 count=1 and place b-h2 file to the winxp boot partition, and include in the boot.ini menu this line: c:\b-h2="c:\b-h2 - booting Linux from /dev/hda2" (I boot ntfs winxp from vfat partition which in winxp became d:\ and I mount it in Linux as /d, but at boot time for boot.ini it’s c:\ ).

    It’s convenient and simple way without a fear to destroy mbr, but down side is you should do this each time after running Lilo. With custom functions and alias’s from my /profile I do this in 10 seconds using: lil ; mn d ; ddd . If forgot you always can boot Knoppix from cd and correct boot problem.

    3. Be full ROOT
    Want to be full root? Just press CntrAltF2 (or F3, F4) and use command Linux where you are root and can do anything. Type mc and have powerful file manager. At any time press AltFn (or CntrAltFn in KDE) to use other terminals: default F1~ starting X-KDE session, F2 - F4 ~ text terminal, F5 is reserved for KDE.

    Still don't like, click on the black screen icon to open KDE terminal, type su , press Enter , next type init 2 . You'll be dropped in the text Linux where you'll be root. Press AltF1 and wait when X-session will be closed, periodically pressing Enter . Next just type startx and you'll be a desktop King, sorry root, again. But,…………………………… as all Kings be ready for assassin through net security hole. So, be caution to use root, better short time, and better without Internet connection.

    Root is a new user with new settings. If you want to use your previous settings, delete files from /ramdisk/home/root and copy there files from /ramdisk/home/knoppix . Do this in the text terminal ( mc ); next, re-login as root again. Root can use alien files, but knoppix not. After root is done, type in terminal init 2 again, and from text Linux terminal type init 5 to start desktop as user knoppix.

    Above was about full root, but for quick easy temporary root during kde session, open kde terminal, type su , press Enter , type mc and use powerful file manager where you can create, delete, copy, move, edit, change permissions, link, unlink, see sizes of files and directories, install programs, and much much more.

    4. Resizing winxp hard drive – ntfsresize
    Ok, if you have only one ntfs partition use ntfsresize (or qtparted in KDE) to resize ntfs file system, and next, cfdisk to adjust ntfs partition size and make a new partition for Linux. If there are unmovable, e.g., pagefile.sys files (run winxp disk defragmenter to see this) on place you want to free for a new partition, remove these files before resizing.

    Keep in mind that ntfsresize changes only ntfs file system size, but not partition size-table. Better understanding ntfsresize using looks like moving a fence to change your property boundary, and moving all your property inside new boundary. But a land developer still has old map, and you may be in trouble. So, you need to use cfdisk to adjust new map (partition table). Again, be caution with new boundary. Let say, you decrease ntfs file system to 5000 MB from the disk beginning, and it would be safer to mapping in cfdisk as 5005 MB.

    Actually, 5 GB size may be optimal for the first ntfs partition, enough to keep winxp and Program Files, but easy to keep winxp system partition clean, in good condition, incl., faster defragmenting. All rest would be better to place on other storage partition, especially Encyclopedia with a lot of small files.

    I keep winxp xp2 (~600 MB after full installation and updates but without obsolete files and backup’s), pagefile.sys, and Program Files on 3 GB partition, including at least 800 MB free for system expansion; and also keep pagefile in optimal position close to winxp system files.

    5. Compact winxp sp2 installation:
    If you have winxp sp1 cd, it’s better to slipstream sp2 and hotfixes to winxp cd and make a new sp2 installation.
    Again, in “Quick Tips” the sp2 slipstream procedure is described in details, but of course, the simplest way is using freeware such as nLite to slipstream sp2 and the hotfixes to winxp, make the iso cd image, and burn it, e.g., by mentioned above CDBurnerXP. More important, nLite can remove from winxp cd many components, e.g., Tour, Winplayer, MSN, Messenger, drivers, which in any case became obsolete and you download the latest versions.

    Minimum requirement for a fresh winxp installation is 1033 MB for sp1 and 1201 MB for sp2 (1160 MB for win2003), but nLite can also remove restrictions for minimum ram and disk space requirements. Just for fan, I stripped winxp distribution folder with slipstreamed xp2 and latest hotfixes to 215 MB and installed winxp to 600 MB partition with c:\windows directory as 452 MB, 3131 files, and after removing some files 385 MB, 2868 files. The installation works perfectly.

    By the way, the easiest and painless (of course, if enough RAM to share) way to play with different OS is using “Microsoft Virtual Machine” (download 45 days trail from Microsoft). Without leaving the host OS, or the pc rebooting, VM can install, run, or reboot several different Operation systems simultaneously. Also, it’s convenient for testing, as you can make installation directly from the iso cd image without actual cd burning. If something goes wrong, simply change winxp installation folder, create another iso image, and continue installation without the pc rebooting.

    For a normal installation I use a trick by placing, e.g., an empty file by dd Linux command, to fill all but ~700 MB on the partition before fresh winxp installation (if you don’t have formatted partition, start installation, format partition, and stop installation when files coping are started. Next reboot to other OS, dos if fat32 or Linux if ntfs, remove or rename copied and add additional files).

    In this case winxp does not copy C:\windows\system32\dllcache and other “junk” with winxp installed as 526 MB and 4331 files. Next, remove temporary files, install hardware drivers and delete c:\windows\Driver Cache\i386 (you always can install drivers from cd), c:\windows\Help\Tour, compress rare used c:\windows\inf and get winxp sp2 installed as ~430 MB. Move MyDoc to a storage partition that also protects it in the case of more much likely system partition crash.

    If pagefile is fragmented or placed far from the partition beginning, set pagefile = No at system partition, reboot, I prefer to Linux to use simple script to delete a huge amount never used files such as sound, video, pictures, html, help (do this periodically, you also may do this less effective using winxp "Search"), and get ~400 MB winxp and ~30 MB initial Program Files. After each update remove c:\windows\$…… files.

    Next, reboot to winxp and: Start\Run rundll32.exe advapi32.dll,ProcessIdleTasks to line up windows startup files; next run disk defragmenter to compact remaining files. When winxp files will be all together (startup files as a second remote bunch), set reasonable (~1.5xRAM size) pagefile, it should be placed close to winxp files, and make rest installation next (2-4 pagefile fragments is not bad, especially, if they are scattered between installed files, repeat operation if the initial pagefile was placed not close to winxp files).

    Unmovable initial pagefile will stay in optimal position between system and programs files that reduce hard disk magnetic heads tossing improving system performance . Of course, if you have several hard disks, it would be sense to place pagefile on other physical disk allowing simultaneously reading from one disk and writing to another. The same situation is with Linux and swap.img .

    6. Captive-ntfs, writing to winxp ntfs
    To write to ntfs I run the simple script without using any other programs . If settings are saved on hd, you need to run this script once, and only mount ntfs next. This script is included in " mn ntfs " function in my /profile, or copy this script to, e.g., cptv file and make it executable ( chmod 777 cptv ).
    mkdir -p /c ;
    for i in ntfs.sys cdfs.sys fastfat.sys ntoskrnl.exe ; do
    find $1 -iname $i | xargs --replace cp -f {} /var/lib/captive ; done
    cpar="/bin/cp -a --remove-destination --reply=yes"
    [ -h /etc/group ] && unlink /etc/group # checking if it is real file, not link
    [ -f /etc/group ] || $cpar /KNOPPIX/etc/group /etc/ ;
    echo "captive:101" >> /etc/group
    [ -h /etc/gshadow ] && unlink /etc/gshadow
    [ -f /etc/gshadow ] || $cpar /KNOPPIX/etc/gshadow /etc/
    echo "captive:*::" >> /etc/gshadow ;
    useradd -g captive -d /var/lib/captive captive ;
    mount -t captive-ntfs /dev/hda1 /c ; #Don't mount captive-ntfs on /mnt/hdxx

    Captive-ntfs uses native NT-like Windows drivers, but does not work with drivers from winxp sp2 , win2003 Server and win2k. So, save cdfs.sys fastfat.sys ntfs.sys ntoskrnl.exe from winxp sp1, and run above script as e.g., : cptv /... ~where to look for saved drivers, or cptv /mnt/hda1/windows/system32 ~only sp1, if ntfs is mounted on /mnt/hda1.

    If you already upgraded to winxp sp2, copy files from sp1 installation cd i386/ NTFS.SYS and CDFS.SY_ FASTFAT.SY_ NTOSKRNL.EX_ and unpack the last three, e.g., using winRAR, winZIP, or in Linux, e.g., cabextract CDFS.SY_ and copy they to /var/lib/captive .

    Don’t move a big amount of data, mainly big number of files , without correct ntfs umounting. Changes on ntfs partition will be saved ONLY when: ALWAYS correctly run umount /c after moving enough files or before system resetting. This script works with Knoppix3.7-3.4, but captive-ntfs was removed from Knoppix3.8. So, boot Knoppix3.7 cd with my profile and if you need to write to ntfs.

    Next frequently asked question is with what OS captive-ntfs works? Captive-ntfs does not work with any OS; it works with ntfs file system. E.g., testing evaluation copies I simultaneously installed (in different folders: c:\winxp c:\win2k c:\win3s) and alternatively run from the same ntfs partition win2k Server, winxp, and win2003 Server. So, captive-ntfs can read/write to any these OS as they use the same ntfs (I'm not sure about winNT file system).

    7. Optimal hd partitioning
    Again, three steps to make a new partition: free space for a new partition ( cfdisk or ntfsresize ), make (mapping) a new partition ( cfdisk ), and make a file system in a new partition ( mke2fs ). When you set a partition size (e.g., in cfdisk ) its size may be changed automatically to even (to complete) the closest cylinder on your hd.

    As mentioned above, the first hd partitions are faster, so make OS partitions smaller, and place they at the hd beginning. Another consideration: as the BIOS in some systems cannot access more than the first 1024 cylinders (~10 GB) on a hard drive ( cfdisk can show partitions size in different units, incl., cylinders) your bootable files should be within this limit.

    I place my primary winxp (incl., pagefile.sys) 3 GB partition as /dev/hda1, next as /dev/hda2 only 730 MB Linux partition formatted with large files support (only 192 inodes, see below) with /KNOPPIX/KNOPPIX core and /boot directory; and next, close to knoppix core to reduce magnetic heads tossing, formatted for small files support 800 MB /dev/hda3 for $mdr, installed programs, and swap.img (see how to make swap.img). All rest hd is as /dev/hda4 for storage, accessible from winxp and Linux. All 4 partitions are primary, bootable.

    8. Custom programs installation to "knoppix core"
    This section was written before UnionFS adoption, but I left it for information purposes.
    Normally, custom programs are structured to install to /usr directory, which is blocked as read-only at knoppix running from core. But "optimal man" had another idea for natural program installation to "knoppix core". Before UnionFS I used might be fancy way to overwrite this accordingly with my nation worn saying: "If mountains do not go to Mohammed then Mohammed goes to mountains".

    Have (or make) a file system with at least ~94000 inodes available. To check this, type df -m ~for disk space, and df -i ~for inodes available and used in mounted file systems. Each Linux file has its own inode, which is a special block with information about this file. 100000 inodes occupy ~12 MB of disk space. A new file can't be created if no free inode is available. I.e., you may meet situation when you copy files to a partition with a plenty of free space, but system says: "no free space"; simply no free inode is available.

    Inodes are created at the file system formation. To change inodes numbers and size the file system should be re-formatted ( data will be lost ), e.g., by:
    mke2fs /dev/hda3 -F -m 0 -N 100000 ; # use additional -n option for preliminary testing without actual formatting.

    Next, at any knoppix session:
    mkdir -p $mdr/add/usr
    /bin/cp -as /KNOPPIX/usr/* $mdr/add/usr ; # recursively links all files from /KNOPPIX/usr to the real directory $mdr/add/usr

    These 92800 links (~5 MB of disk space) occupy 92800 inodes, You can free inodes for future use by reducing number of links, e.g., by re-linking (as simply as pressing Cntr(x)-s in mc ) a directory as hole, one inode per a directory; but these directories will be closed for writing. E.g., only re-linking .../doc and .../man directories, number of links was reduced to ~61000.

    Actually, you may create enough inodes and don't care about reducing, On the other hand, keep opened only $mdr/add/usr directories where your custom installation will go, checking a package content before installation. A binary package (deb, rpm) content may be checked by opening it (clicking on it in mc ); and simply copied to /… without actual package installation, only running post install scripts, if any are present.

    Next, you can make normal installation to root / ==> /usr until your partition will be full, or all inodes will be used (you can delete unnecessary links, as mentioned above, or to limit linked files from the beginning as described below). No needs to correct PATH and LIB_PATH. Only, after a new installation I run my custom psinst function.

    If any operation says " ..... no file ", copy real file from /KNOPPIX/.... and put it to $mdr to connect to / (of course, avoid conflicts before and after autoconfiguration settings files).

    I made $mdr/add/usr directory and manually linked /KNOPPIX/usr/ directories as whole to $mdr/add/usr /, except of those my programs will install to. I spent ~5 minutes to link manually, and next, installed latest KOffice-, and only 10989 inodes and 39 MB were occupied by $mdr.

    EXHIBIT A script includes automatically linking at boot your customized $mdr/add/usr to /usr . At reboot /usr will be umounted, and will mount it automatically at the next boot.

    You can "hard link" a directory by " mount --bind " or "soft link" by " ln -s ", or recursively link files from directories by " cp -as ". " mount --bind " refers to inode locations, but "soft links" to files path. Both have preferences: "mount --bind" does not use inodes and hd space, but if you accidentally delete directory all data will be lost. In the case of "soft links", only link will be deleted, but links add path for files searching and execution.

    9. HD and Knoppix-3.8 UnionFS
    Knoppix-3.8 adopted Union file system ( ) that recursively merges several underlying directories or branches into a single virtual view. Branches can be of any filesystem type, and each branch is assigned precedence. A branch with a higher precedence overrides a branch with a lower precedence. UnionFS keeps track of which files you have modified (which are modified and stored within the higher branch) and which are unmodified.

    The above was a theory. How to adopt UnionFS to hd install? It’s look like the simplest is to remove /ramdisk from the union, umount it, and place your hd directory on the top of the /UNIONFS, keeping all changing’s in the hd directory. But Knoppix-3.8 adds /ramdisk to /UNIONFS in the minirt.gz/linuxrc that keeps /ramdisk busy next, you cannot umount it as it was possible in Knoppix3.7.

    Therefore, you can only close /ramdisk for writing (--mode ro ) and add a hd directory on the union top. But each new UnionFS branch decreases a pc performance and, at least in my case, adding an ext2 hd directory on the top of the /ramdisk and /KNOPPIX frequently tends to “segmentation fault” with the filesystem damage.

    Therefore, the simplest is to unlink /home and may become bulky /tmp from RAM based /ramdisk and to link they to a hd directory. Nevertheless, this will continue to “drain” your RAM and will not keep configuration settings after rebooting. Therefore, it is better to use modified linuxrc for adding mypat/ramdisk to /UNIONFS without a real ramdisk creation. This procedure is described in the next section. Read also manuals for unionfs and unionctl .

    10. Full control for knoppix initiation
    You need to modify and replace (see Quick Tips) linuxrc file inside minirt.gz to control early initiation process. I placed pointed below scripts to the linuxrc , and now through cheatcodes have full control of knoppix initiation: including saving configuration files changing’s directly (via UnionFS) to hd or usb stick based directories without inconvenient "persistence home" and a real ramdisk creation, run custom scripts automatically, or to interrupt linuxrc initiation and make changing manually. So, there is no difference to boot fully hd installed knoppix or "Optimal man" hd installed knoppix.

    It’s better to start from the linuxrc end to keep line numbering before. Place two lines script between (together) with (#=====) to the Knoppix-3.8 linuxrc after the line 659:
    Line 659: echo "${BLUE}Done.${NORMAL}"
    ;; esac # The end of: case "$CMDLINE" in *mypat=/* )
    case "$CMDLINE" in *run2*) runscrpt ;; esac
    Next should be line:

    Next, place the script together with (#=====) after the line 626:
    Line 626: rm -rf /modules /static
    runscrpt() { echo ; # " Place this function in linuxrc before the first time using, and call it next as referred below in the "case ..." using the boot line cheatcode as a place to stop, e.g., run1 "
    echo ">>>>> Hi, you are stopped inside linuxrc. As /KNOPPIX and /proc are already mounted, type /bin/bash to open a shell and use fully operational Linux, e.g., to place custom /etc/inittab, etc/init.d/rcS, or scripts to /etc/rcS.d/ to run at system initiation. You can use mounted fromhd ==> /cdrom, or mount any device. Next, umount devices and type exit until you leave all shells. In the linuxrc end you even can type mc and use powerful file manager."
    echo ; echo "When you left bash shells, you still can run commands until type -ok- to continue linuxrc, or -exit- to leave it, as you are in the loop:"
    echo ' until [ $srpt = ok ] ; do read srpt ; $srpt ; done '
    srpt=55; until [ $srpt = ok ] ; do read srpt ; $srpt ; done ; } # The end of the runscrpt function

    CMDLINE="$(cat /proc/cmdline)" ; case "$CMDLINE" in *run1* ) runscrpt ;; esac

    # Using hd or usb stick based directories in UnionFS without a real ramdisk creation
    case "$CMDLINE" in *mypat=/* ) mkdir -p /zyx ; # echo "This script runs if mypat=/... is set as a boot line cheatcode: mypat=/cdrom to use the same partition as fromhd=/... ; mypat=run to do anything manually here; or mypat=/dev/... to mount hd or usb stick based partition on /mypat. Set Knoppix version k38; you also can set mypat filesystem type, e.g., myfs=ext3 or ext2 will be used."
    case "$CMDLINE" in *rmd*) kn=-rmd;; *k38new*) kn=-38new;; *k38*) kn=-38;; *k37*) kn=-37;; *) kn=-xx;; esac
    case "$CMDLINE" in *mypat=/dev*) mdr=/mypat;; *mypat=/cdrom*) mdr=/cdrom;; esac
    echo ; echo ">>>>> Hi, I am inside minirt.gz/linuxrc before (re)mounting $mypat ==> $mdr for adding $mdr/ramdisk$kn to /UNIONFS without a real ramdisk creation. "

    echo ; case "$CMDLINE" in *fromhd=/* ) echo ">>>>> fromhd=$fromhd is mounted at /cdrom as ro; you may say Yes to check it and remount,rw "
    fst=ext2 ; if [ $fst = ext2 ] ; then /KNOPPIX/sbin/e2fsck -p $fromhd ; fi
    /KNOPPIX/bin/mount $fromhd -t $fst /cdrom -o remount,rw,exec && echo ">>>>> (Re)mount: $fromhd -t $fst /cdrom -o remount,rw,exec";; esac

    echo ; mdr=ZZZ ; case "$CMDLINE" in *myfs=* ) fst=$myfs ;; * ) fst=ext2 ;; esac
    case "$CMDLINE" in *mypat=run* ) runscrpt ;; # You should set mdr=/....
    *mypat=/dev/* ) echo ">>>>> Mounting partition: mypat=$mypat ............"
    if [ $fst = ext2 ] ; then /KNOPPIX/sbin/e2fsck -p $mypat ; fi
    [ -d /mypat ] || mkdir -p /mypat ; [ -d /mypat ] && mdrp=/mypat ;
    if /KNOPPIX/bin/mount $mypat -t $fst $mdrp -o rw,exec ; then mdr=$mdrp ;
    echo ">>>>> $mypat is mounted as: mount $mypat -t $fst $mdr -o rw,exec " ;
    else echo ">>>>> $mypat is not !!!!!!!!!!! mounted as: mount $mypat -t $fst $mdrp -o rw,exec"; fi ;;
    *mypat=/cdrom* ) mdr=/cdrom ;; esac

    [ -d $mdr ] || { echo 'No valid $mdr directory was found. Reboot and set mypat=/... as the boot line cheatcode, or enter directory where you saved (or would save) and use hd based $mdr/ramdisk$kn ==> /ramdisk '
    read mdr ; echo "You entered: mdr=$mdr" ; sleep 2 ; }

    [ -d $mdr/ramdisk$kn ] || mkdir -p $mdr/ramdisk$kn ; [ -d $mdr/ramdisk$kn ] && rmd=$mdr/ramdisk$kn

    if echo "Hi, world" > $rmd/zt 2>/dev/null ; then rm -f $rmd/zt 2>/dev/null
    echo ">>>>> Your writable ramdisk is: rmd=$rmd "
    [ -d $rmd/home/knoppix ] || mkdir -p $rmd/home/knoppix
    [ -d $rmd/home/knoppix ] && chown knoppix.knoppix $rmd/home/knoppix ; ln -sf $rmd/home /home
    [ -d $rmd/tmp ] || mkdir -p $rmd/tmp ; chmod 1777 $rmd/tmp
    [ -d /tmp ] && rm -fR /tmp 2>/dev/null && ln -sf $rmd/tmp /tmp
    ln -sf $rmd /ramdisk
    else echo ">>>>> Your ramdisk rmd=$rmd is not writable !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! " ; fi
    ;; * ) # Continue of the: case "$CMDLINE" in *mypat=/* )

    Next should be line:
    #New in Kernel 2.4.x: tmpfs with variable ramdisk size.

    Now, at each knoppix boot, customized and saved on hd files are automatically bound to knoppix /dev/root/ and knoppix runs as previously session continuation. No needs in cd re-mastering. Personal settings (not storage, or installed programs) and presented here scripts are floppy size and can be moved with knoppix cd to other pc to continue your knoppix session.

    No needs to burn a new version cd, simply download a new iso file, mount it and replace linux, minirt.gz and /KNOPPIX/KNOPPIX.

    To make additional customization, simply copy real configuration file from /KNOPPIX/.... , modify it and place to your $mdr to automatically use at boot (or manually anytime). Any customization may be added to script, which is called in the sequence: Linux init > /etc/inittabb > /etc/init.d/rcS > /etc/init.d/knoppix-autoconfig; the last calls at the end of system autoconfiguration, but before entering into runlevel.

    Video settings adjustment
    To adjust video settings open run and type: kxconfig , change settings, quit, and logout\in without rebooting (or simply press CntrAltBackspace ). If the kde screen is unreadable, open an other terminal ( CntrAltF2 ) , type kxconfig , correct settings, quit, return to the kde terminal ( AltF5 - 8 ) and press CntrAltBackspace .

    Quick tips:
    Open a script text in mc editor ( F4 ); if no, place #!/bin/sh as the very first line, close editor, open the script again. Script commands will be colored making it easy to read and understand. Use Shift-arrow_keys to highlight text, CntrIns to copy, AltDel to cut, and AltIns to paste text from clipboard.

    If you copy a script in windows or dos, convert it to Linux: dos2unix script . Some editors may incorrectly transfer or even interpret the same symbol on a screen like \ “” ‘’ `` . Check converted colored script for black spots (black strings between `……` and ^[ are ok), and replace all \ in any line end.

    Auto completion or don't know correct command name: Type in terminal any command beginning, quickly click two times Tab (in mc keep Alt and click Tab ), a command will be completed, or you'll see the list of commands to choose from.

    Don't know how to use a command? Type command_name --help ; or man command_name ; or better in mc : press F2 , choose View Manual submenu, type command_name, read colored manual in convenience. It’s a very good idea immediately after this manual start to read: man bash that should help you to understand scripts.

    698 MB or 715,….. KB
    bytes/1000=Kb/1000=Mb/1000=Gb … , but
    bytes/1024=KB/1024=MB/1024=GB …
    Manufactures often use this delusion to show the maximum number, but not those used by majority OS. So, don’t be surprised when you got a new hd, but next discovered that it has less capacity than a vendor promoted.

    Replacing linuxrc in the minirt.gz
    gunzip minirt.gz ; mkdir /lop && mount –t ext2 minirt /lop –o loop ; open /lop, replace linuxrc, leave /lop; gzip –9 minirt ; done. With my /profile I do this in 20 seconds keeping pointer on minirt in mc : mk gu CntrEnter ; mn l /lop CntrEnter; replace linuxrc ; mn u /lop ; mk g CntrEnter ; done.

    Slipstream sp2 to winxp cd
    First, you need to get the entire sp2 file from Microsoft. To slipstream sp2 to a new winxp cd copy the winxp cd to hd, e.g., to c:\xp; extract sp2 ( c:\WindowsXP-KB835935-SP2-ENU.exe –x ), it’ll ask where - to c:\xsp2; and slipstream sp2 ( c:\xsp2\i386\Update\Update.exe -S:C:\xp ). You can also slipstream together with sp2 updates after sp2 (e.g., c:\WindowsXP-KB885835-x86-ENU.exe /integrate:c:\xp /norestart /n ). The last command also may be used to slipstream sp2.

    You need to extract from winxp cd the boot image file “ Microsoft Corporation.img ”, e.g., using ISO Buster ; and use it during new winxp cd burning to make it bootable. Detailed information may be found here

    If you want to reduce installation folder, e.g., to place on the same cd additional files, run from any windows:
    E:\i386\winnt32 /s:E:\i386 /unattend5:c:\winnt.txt /tempdrive:c /noreboot
    or from dos: E:\i386\winnt /s:E:\i386 /u:A:\winnt.sif /t:d

    Suppose, E:\ is your winxp installation cd drive, and unattended winnt.sif file is optional. This procedure creates on the drive /t:d two temporary folders with the only essential for installation files. Don’t continue installation, but rename folder with \i386 to, e.g., c:\xp\i386 and move to \i386 all files from the second folder. Next, copy from the installation cd: all root files only to c:\xp, and recursively from cd\i386\ files: disk1 , dosnet.inf , , usetup.exe , and all files started from: winnt*; and after sp2 slipstream: \i386\WINNTUPG\netmap.inf .

    Remove from xp/i386 bootsect.dat , migrate.inf , and can remove or leave winnt.sif , at least, be sure that in winnt.sif : LocalSourceOnCD="1" if install from cd (iso image) and 0 if from hd. Next, you can slipstream sp2 and hotfixes to this “stripped” winxp installation folder, incl., removing unnecessary components. In my case the final sp2 winxp distributive folder is 263 MB, and I burned only one cd with all my installation programs.

    Useful winxp freeware tools: ; http://www.majorgeeks.com ; ; ;
    It replaces RAM based /ramdisk and /etc with hd based directories for Knoppix3.7 and /home /tmp for Knoppix3.8. Set boot line cheatcodes: k38 or k37, mypat=/..., myfs=…(see above in linuxrc modification). Copy the follow script to the beginning, but after the very first #!/bin/sh line of the :
    # home=scan >knoppix.img, next myconfig=scan > run from /etc/rcS.d/S00knoppix-autoconfig
    cpaur="/bin/cp -au --remove-destination --reply=yes" ; cpasr="/bin/cp -as --remove-destination --reply=yes"
    echo; CMDLINE=`(cat /proc/cmdline)` ; echo -n '>>>>> The follow was sent to Kernel: ' ; echo $CMDLINE

    case "$CMDLINE" in *fromhd=/* ) echo ; # Test fromhd ==> /cdrom partition for ro/rw and remount,rw. "Say " Yes " to check filesystem; e2fsck -y -p options should skip confirmation but done not work here."
    READWRITE=NO ; if echo XXX > /cdrom/testfs 2>/dev/null ; then rm -f /cdrom/testfs 2>/dev/null
    READWRITE=YES 2>/dev/null ; fi 2>/dev/null ; fst=ext2
    echo -n "After testing $fromhd filesystem - READWRITE is: $READWRITE " ; echo ' but '
    [ $READWRITE = NO ] && { if [ $fst = ext2 ] ; then /KNOPPIX/sbin/e2fsck -p $fromhd ; fi ; }
    /KNOPPIX/bin/mount $fromhd -t $fst /cdrom -o remount,rw,exec && echo ">>>>> (Re)mount $fromhd -t $fst /cdrom -o remount,rw,exec" ;; esac

    case "$CMDLINE" in *rmd*) kn=-rmd;; *k38new*) kn=-38new;; *k38*) kn=-38;; *k37*) kn=-37;; *) kn=-xx;; esac
    case "$CMDLINE" in *mypat=/dev*) mdr=/mypat;; *mypat=/cdrom*) mdr=/cdrom;; esac ;
    if [ -d /zyx ] ; then rmdir /zyx ; # /zyx is created in modified linuxrc as a check point
    echo ">>>>> Hi, from You are here if linuxrc is modified and your $mdr/ramdisk$kn should be set on hd."
    else echo ">>>>> Hi, I am inside before (re)mounting $mypat ==> $mdr for using hd based $mdr/ramdisk$kn "
    case "$CMDLINE" in *k37* ) echo "As Knoppix ==> k37 then $mdr/ramdisk$kn will be used without a real ramdisk, incl., $mdr/ramdisk$kn/etc$kn " ;;
    * ) echo "As Knoppix ==> k38, then linuxrc already added /ramdisk to /UNIONFS, and your hd based $mdr/ramdisk$kn may be added only as a new branch, but /home and /tmp have been reconnected from RAM /ramdisk to hd $mdr/ramdisk$kn. Boot modified linuxrc to use $mdr/ramdisk$kn without ramdisk. " ;; esac

    echo; mdr=ZZZ ; case "$CMDLINE" in *myfs=* ) fst=$myfs ;; * ) fst=ext2 ;; esac
    case "$CMDLINE" in *mypat=/dev/* ) echo ">>>>> Mounting partition: mypat=$mypat ............"
    if [ $fst = ext2 ] ; then /KNOPPIX/sbin/e2fsck -p $mypat ; fi
    [ -d /mypat ] || mkdir -p /mypat ; [ -d /mypat ] && mdrp=/mypat ;
    if /KNOPPIX/bin/mount $mypat -t $fst $mdrp -o rw,exec ; then mdr=$mdrp ;
    echo ">>>>> $mypat is mounted as: mount $mypat -t $fst $mdr -o rw,exec " ;
    else echo ">>>>> $mypat is not !!!!!!!!!!! mounted as: mount $mypat -t $fst $mdrp -o rw,exec"; fi ;;
    *mypat=/cdrom* ) mdr=/cdrom ;; esac

    [ -d $mdr ] || { echo 'No valid $mdr directory was found. Reboot and set mypat=/... as the boot line cheatcode, or enter directory where you saved (or would save) and use hd based $mdr/ramdisk$kn ==> /ramdisk '
    read mdr ; echo "You entered: mdr=$mdr" ; sleep 2 ; }

    [ -d $mdr/ramdisk$kn ] || mkdir -p $mdr/ramdisk$kn ; [ -d $mdr/ramdisk$kn ] && rmd=$mdr/ramdisk$kn

    if echo "Hi, world" > $rmd/zt 2>/dev/null ; then rm -f $rmd/zt 2>/dev/null
    echo ">>>>> Your writable ramdisk is: rmd=$rmd "
    [ -d $rmd/home/knoppix ] || mkdir -p $rmd/home/knoppix
    [ -d $rmd/home/knoppix ] && chown knoppix.knoppix $rmd/home/knoppix
    [ -h /home ] && unlink /home 2>/dev/null ; [ -d /home ] && rm -fR /home 2>/dev/null ; ln -sf $rmd/home /home
    [ -d $rmd/tmp ] || mkdir -p $rmd/tmp ; chmod 1777 $rmd/tmp
    [ -h /tmp ] && unlink /tmp 2>/dev/null ; [ -d /tmp ] && rm -fR /tmp 2>/dev/null ; ln -sf $rmd/tmp /tmp
    test -L /ramdisk || { [ -d /ramdisk/home ] && rm -fR /ramdisk/home 2>/dev/null
    [ -d /ramdisk/tmp ] && rm -fR /ramdisk/tmp 2>/dev/null ; }

    case "$CMDLINE" in
    *k38new* ) # Knoppix-3.8, using UnionFS to save changings on hd ==> $rmd over /ramdisk without linuxrc modification
    unionctl /UNIONFS --add $rmd ; unionctl /UNIONFS --mode /ramdisk ro 2>/dev/null ;;
    *k38* ) ;;
    *k37* ) # Knoppix ==> k37, moving /etc to hd, umount /ramdisk to free RAM memory, and link it with hd based directory
    [ -d $rmd/etc$kn ] || mv -f /etc $rmd/etc$kn ; [ -d /etc ] && rm -fR /etc ; ln -sf $rmd/etc$kn /etc
    [ -d /ramdisk/var ] && { [ -d $rmd/var ] || mv -f /ramdisk/var $rmd/ ; }
    [ -d /ramdisk ] && umount /ramdisk 2>/dev/null ; rm -fR /ramdisk 2>/dev/null
    # [ -d /ramdisk ] || mkdir -p /ramdisk ; mount --bind $rmd /ramdisk
    [ -h /ramdisk ] && unlink /ramdisk 2>/dev/null ; ln -sf $rmd /ramdisk ; chmod 1777 /tmp /var/tmp
    # [ -d $mdr/mycnf ] && $cpasr $mdr/mycnf/* /
    #$cpaur /cdrom/mycnf/* / ; # I keep in .../mycnf my customized setting files; .../mycnf existed structure should duplicate root / .
    # You may replace/copy ($cpaur) or replace/link $cpasr you settings to /... . In the last case you may only modify files in your .../mypat, but changing will be reflected in / immediately.
    ;; esac
    else echo ">>>>> Your ramdisk rmd=$rmd is not writable !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! " ; fi
    fi # The end of the: if [ -d /zyx ]

    [ -f $mdr/profile ] && $cpaur $mdr/profile /etc/
    [ -d $mdr/boot ] && { [ -h /boot ] && unlink /boot; [ -d /boot ] || mkdir -p /boot; mount --bind $mdr/boot /boot; }

    init q ; # put in action new /etc/initttab, e.g., to open additional terminals

    # Automatically link at boot, if exist, your customized $rmd/usr to /usr :
    [ -d $mdr/add/usr ] && { [ -h /usr ] && unlink /usr ; [ -d /usr ] && rmdir /usr &>/dev/null
    [ -d /usr ] || mkdir -p /usr ; mount --bind $mdr/add/usr /usr ; }

    # Connect, if exist, the latest Openoffice snapshot ( )
    [ -d $mdr/add/opt ] && { [ -h /opt ] && unlink /opt ; [ -d /opt ] && rmdir /opt &>/dev/null
    [ -d /opt ] || mkdir -p /opt ; mount --bind $mdr/add/opt /opt ; }

    echo ; # swap setting
    hdsw=`cat /proc/mounts | grep /dev/ | cut -d' ' -f2`
    for i in $hdsw ; do
    [ -s "$i"/swap.img ] && { swapoff "$i"/swap.img &>/dev/null ; swapon "$i"/swap.img ; } ; done
    if cat /proc/swaps | grep swap &>/dev/null ; then
    echo ">>>>> swap was found on your mounted /dev/... and activated as:"; cat /proc/swaps
    else echo ">>>>> No swap was found on your mounted /dev/....... :" ; echo $hdsw ; fi
    echo ; echo '>>>>> Use custom function: " mk sw /... " to make or change swap.img size on mounted /... '
    echo '>>>>> Type "mk" to see what this function does. Type "free" to see RAM and swap usage. ' ; echo

    Copy script to the end of the /etc/profile and use alias’s and functions:
    echo -n '>>>>> Hi from /etc/profile '
    alias alp="alias -p" ; alias df="df -m" ; alias dfi="df -i" ; alias ps="ps aux" ; alias free="free -m"
    alias cpa="/bin/cp -a " # -a ==> -dpR, incl., -dp ~preserve mode, links, etc
    alias cpu="/bin/cp -u" # update; without -a ~follow links and copy real files
    alias cpau="/bin/cp -au" # -a ~preserve and copy links
    alias cpas="/bin/cp -as" # -s ~link files instead of coping
    alias cpasu="/bin/cp -asu" ; alias cpap="/bin/cp -a --parents" ; alias cpaup="/bin/cp -au --parents"
    alias cpar="/bin/cp -a --remove-destination --reply=yes"
    alias cpasr="/bin/cp -as --remove-destination --reply=yes"
    alias ddd="dd if=/dev/hda3 of=/d/b-h3 bs=512 count=1"
    alias lil="lilo -C /boot/lilo.conf" ; alias lnks="ln -sf"
    alias ml="mount -l" ; alias mm="cat /proc/mounts"
    alias ul="unionctl /UNIONFS --list"
    # alias for a string without an argument, but a function with arguments ~ $1. Functions see alias, but "..| xargs --replace .." not, and also cp... inside profile
    # /etc/profile sets shell settings when starts a terminal, or press Cntr-D to renew profile settings.

    CMDLINE="$(cat /proc/cmdline)"
    case "$CMDLINE" in *rmd*) kn=-rmd;; *k38new*) kn=-38new;; *k38*) kn=-38;; *k37*) kn=-37;; *) kn=-xx;; esac
    case "$CMDLINE" in *mypat=/dev* ) mdr=/mypat;; *mypat=/cdrom* ) mdr=/cdrom;; esac
    [ -d $mdr/mycnf ] && mycnf=$mdr/mycnf ; rmdupd=$mdr/upd$kn

    PATH=$PATH:$mdr:$mycnf/rootf ; LD_LIBRARY_PATH="/usr/local/lib:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH"
    export HOME PATH mdr mycnf LD_LIBRARY_PATH ; echo "======> HOME=$HOME " ; echo "mypat=$mypat mdr=$mdr mycnf=$mycnf "

    [ -d $mycnf/.mc ] && { [ -h $HOME/.mc ] && unlink $HOME/.mc ; [ -d $HOME/.mc ] && rm -fR $HOME/.mc
    ln -sf $mycnf/.mc /$HOME/ ; } # I keep .mc with customized menu in the $mycnf/.mc

    #Custom functions:
    chmo() { chmod 777 "$1" && chown knoppix.knoppix "$1" ; } # Quickly change after annoying "You do not have permission..."

    cptar() { [ -z "$1" ] && { echo '>>>>> Preserve links and permissions during copping.';
    type cptar ; return ; } ; [ -d "$2" ] || mkdir -p "$2" ;
    (cd "$1" ; tar cvf - .) | (cd "$2" ; tar xpf -) ; } # Commands in (.. ; ..) executed in subshell

    fnd() { case "$2" in i ) S2="-iname";; n ) S2="-name";; f ) S2="-type f";; d ) S2="-type d";;
    xi ) S2="-xdev -iname";; xf ) S2="-xdev -type f";; * ) type fnd;; esac
    S3="$3"; [ "$3" = x ] && S3=""; doit="$4"; [ -e $4 ] && doit=echo
    [ -e $3 ] && echo 'Usage: find $1 -xdev $S2 $S3 | xargs --no-run-if-empty --replace $4 {} $5 '
    find "$1" "$S2" "$S3" | xargs --no-run-if-empty --replace "$doit" {} "$5"
    echo " It was find "$1" "$S2" "$S3" | xargs --no-run-if-empty --replace "$doit" {} "$5" " ; }

    hdp() { case $1 in s ) hdparm -c3 -u1 -d1 -m16 -k1 /dev/hda ;; t ) hdparm -tT /dev/hda ;; * ) type hdp ;; esac ; }

    hl() { "$1" --help | less ; } ; hm() { "$1" --help | more ; }

    mk() { case $1 in
    sw ) # >>>>> Use "mk sw /..." to make or change swap on mounted partition /...
    swd=$mdr ; [ $2 ] && swd="$2" ; [ -s $swd/swap.img ] && {
    echo ======= Do you agree with: `du -h "$swd"/swap.img` - y/n ;
    read -t 200 answer ; case "$answer" in y*|Y*) swapoff $swd/swap.img ; swapon $swd/swap.img && echo ====== `du -h "$swd"/swap.img` is swapon; return ;;
    n*|N*) swapoff $swd/swap.img ; rm -f $swd/swap.img && echo Removing $swd/swap.img ;; esac; }
    [ -s $swd/swap.img ] && { echo ===== There is: `du -h "$swd"/swap.img`; swaapoff "$swd"/swap.img; }
    df -m | grep $swd ; echo "Choose $swd/swap.img size and enter it in xxMB "
    read sws ; dd if=/dev/zero of="$swd"/swap.img bs=1k count="$sws"k
    mkswap "$swd"/swap.img ; swapon "$swd"/swap.img ;;
    iso ) mkisofs -l -R -V "$2"-iso -hide-rr-moved -v "$3"/ | create_compressed_fs - 65536 > "$4"/"$2".iso ;;
    isob ) mkisofs -l -r -J -V "$1" -hide-rr-moved -v -no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table -b "$2" -c "$3" -o "$4" "$5" ;;
    cloop ) [ ! -d "$3" ] && mkdir "$3" ; lsmod | grep cloop || insmod -f "$4"/cloop.ko file="$2" ; mount /dev/cloop "$3" ;;
    intrd) dd if=/dev/zero of=$2 bs=1024k count=$3 ; mke2fs -F -m0 -b 1024 $2 ;;
    mk2 ) mke2fs -F -m 0 "$3" "$2" ;; mk2n ) mke2fs "$2" -F -m 0 -b 1024 -i 1024 -N 100000 -n ;;
    g ) gzip -9 "$2" ;; gu ) gunzip "$2" ;;
    * ) type mk ; echo "Usage: mk sw,iso,isob,cloop,intrd,mk2,g,gu " ;; esac ; }

    mn() { case $1 in
    d ) [ -d /d ] || mkdir -p /d ; mount /dev/hda2 /d -t vfat -o rw,exec && echo /dev/hda2 mounted on /d ;;
    fd ) [ -d /fd ] || mkdir -p /fd ; mount -t vfat /dev/fd0 /fd -o rw,exec ;;
    l ) [ -d $2 ] || mkdir -p "$2" ; mount "$3" "$2" -o loop ;;
    cdrom ) mount -t ext2 $fromhd /cdrom -o remount,rw,exec && echo "mount -t ext2 $fromhd /cdrom -o remount,rw,exec" ;;
    cn ) [ -d /c ] || mkdir -p /c ; mount -t ntfs /dev/hda1 /c && echo " ntfs /dev/hda1 is mounted on /c ";;
    cc ) [ -d /c ] || mkdir -p /c ; mount -t captive-ntfs /dev/hda1 /c && echo "captive-ntfs is mounted on /c ";;
    ntfs ) # >>>>> Use "mn ntfs" to mount ntfs and creat its setting for the first time. Next, use "mn cc"
    mkdir -p /c ; [ -z "$2" ] || { for i in ntfs.sys cdfs.sys fastfat.sys ntoskrnl.exe ; do
    find $2 -iname $i | xargs --replace /bin/cp -f {} /var/lib/captive ; done ; }
    [ -h /etc/group ] && unlink /etc/group ; [ -f /etc/group ] || $cpar /KNOPPIX/etc/group /etc/
    echo "captive:101" >> /etc/group
    [ -h /etc/gshadow ] && unlink /etc/gshadow ; [ -f /etc/gshadow ] || $cpar /KNOPPIX/etc/gshadow /etc/
    echo "captive:*::" >> /etc/gshadow
    useradd -g captive -d /var/lib/captive captive
    mount -t captive-ntfs /dev/hda1 /c ;;
    cloop ) lsmod | grep cloop || insmod /boot/cloop.ko file="$2"/KNOPPIX/KNOPPIX ; mount /dev/cloop "$3" ;;
    u) umount "/$2" ;; * ) type mn ; echo ' Usage: mn d,fd,l,cc,cn,ntfs,cloop,u ';; esac ; }

    psinst() { echo "Running post install updates" ; update-mime ; update-menus ; ldconfig ; }

    rst() { upd r; date > $rmdupd/daterst ; case $1 in h ) halt ;; * ) reboot ;; esac ; }

    upd() { [ -z "$1" ] && { type upd ; return ; } ; # >>>>> Backup files
    drb=$rmdupd/etc-b ; [ -d $drb ] || mkdir -p $drb ;
    /bin/cp -u /etc/{profile,inittab,lilo.conf,exclude,group,shadow,pa sswd} "$drb"
    list="$mdr/ $mycnf/.mc/menu $mycnf/.mc/hotlist /linuxrc "
    for i in $list ; do cpu "$i" "$drb" ; done
    nf=$rmdupd/daterst ; [ -f $nf ] || date > $nf ; # For copy newer files than last reboot by function rst
    drn=$rmdupd/etc-n ; [ -d $drn ] || mkdir -p /$drn
    find /etc/ -type f -newer $nf | xargs --replace /bin/cp -au --parents {} "$drn" ;
    drn=$rmdupd/etc-last ; [ -d $drn ] && /bin/rm -fR /$drn ; [ -d $drn ] || mkdir -p /$drn
    find /etc/ -type f -newer $nf | xargs --replace /bin/cp -au --parents {} "$drn" ; }

    updd() { [ -z "$1" ] && { type updd ; return ; } ; [ -d "$2" ] || mkdir -p "$2" ;
    find "$1" -type f | xargs --replace /bin/cp -au --parents {} "$2" ; }

  2. #2
    Senior Member registered user
    Join Date
    Feb 2003

    I fully agree. As a new Kanotix/Knoppix version comes out, I replace exactly three files on my HD, and that's it, my preconfiguration is being copied over /, and my additionally installed apps continue to run from klik'd cmg files. A full OS upgrade takes me five minutes, literally.

    "Poor" Man's Install is "Power Man Install" actually


  3. #3
    Junior Member
    Join Date
    Feb 2005

    I have installed Knoppix by this description and works OK.

    Some questions:

    1. At booting I get a e2fsck warning at a mounted device and I must say " yes" . Is this normal?

    2. After a few times starting of Knoppix, Ramdisk on Hd is filled with about 80 Mb. How can I easy clear the Ramdisk on Hd?


  4. #4
    Junior Member registered user
    Join Date
    Jan 2004
    Tacoma, WA
    1. “Yes” is OK. I can’t find how to rid off this. Normally, e2fsck –y or –p options should serve to skip confirmation, but in this case e2fsck is double precaution and asking for confirmation. As /cdrom was mounted to access knoppix core; there is no other way to check its umounted file system except using Linux booted in other way (the same situation with root / when you boot any hd installed Linux). That is why, script checks if /cdrom is mounted as read-only, and checks it next. As there is not much activity from /cdrom, it’s up for you to check it, or not at each boot. You can uncheck this line in (placing # at the line beginning).

    2. 80M – from where, and where?? I did not install programs in /ramdisk and it was around 5M for both knoppix and root. It may be downloading, or tmp , especially if you unpacked archives. First, try cleaning Trash bucket from desktop, both for knoppix and root.
    But I prefer direct approach: open – mc - in terminal, next, open /ramdisk directory, and press (in mc) F9-c-i . It’ll calculate directories sizes. Open the biggest, and again F9-c-i . Find where is this 80M ???? If in /tmp – delete files (you may also delete mc tmp folder, but not big problem, reboot). Inform if something is going strange. Is there any links from within /ramdisk?

    Best, Alex
    P.S. See updated (in several hours) post for program installation.

  5. #5
    Junior Member
    Join Date
    Feb 2005
    Quote Originally Posted by alex52
    1. “Yes” is OK. ..........................

    2. 80M – from where, and where?? ......................

    Best, Alex
    P.S. See updated (in several hours) post for program installation.]
    Thanks for your answers Alex

    (1.) "Yes" is OK with me too, but I hope someone has a simple solution.

    (2.) After writing my last message Knoppix didn't start anymore (full HD). With the liveCD I have searched in the HD ramdisk and found many big ftp files. My son has tryed to download a game with the HD-install and KDE themes (I didn't know this). After deleting these files the HD-install starts again.

    (P.S.) Good work, I wil take a look on the updated post.
    I had forgotten to write, that I had to insert "modprobe dm-mod" before the "Lilo -C" command. Otherwise I get the "device mapper" error.


  6. #6
    Junior Member
    Join Date
    Mar 2005
    My question is: can 'Optimal man' system be used with samba server for storage in place of hard disk?

    My laptop does not boot from Kingston USB memstick for some reason, the hard disk has only one NTFS partition and the laptop is windows networked, the colour printer is attached to the windows server. The only escape route is via samba network.

  7. #7
    Junior Member
    Join Date
    Mar 2005

    From zero to Linux in 2 days with this manual.

    Greets and thanks.


  8. #8
    Junior Member registered user
    Join Date
    Jun 2004

    isorecorder for early versions of WinXP

    My son-in-law has a WinXP, not the latest, and the original versions did not support .iso burning in the XP CD burning software (he also had some problems getting Nero to work properly). I searched and found this (download the patch from this site if you want/need this fix) at:


    ISO Recorder Power Toy is a UI component that allows to use CD-Recording capabilities of Windows XPr to record ISO images and copy CD to CD - a piece of functionality missing in Windows XPr

    The ISO Recorder itself does not record CDs but instead uses existing OS features. Some of the interfaces it uses are not fully documented by Microsoft and as such are subject to change in the future.

    This software works on Windows XP only . It was tested with retail build of Windows XP (Home and Professional)"

    I used this to make my first knoppix 3.4 CD on his PC; my only previous opportunity to get knoppix was when I first heard of, and was given a copy of 2.2, at a local linux install-fest a few years back.

    HTH, Johnpipe

  9. #9
    Junior Member
    Join Date
    May 2005
    Hey Alex,

    Is this you or someone impersonating you?

    Thread-Topic: Easy winxp and Linux co-existence
    thread-index: AcVQ2kc4U5WTUiH/RRmO4C2Gmzlmyw==
    From: =?Utf-8?B?QWxleDUy?= <>
    Subject: Easy winxp and Linux co-existence
    Date: Wed, 4 May 2005 11:51:27 -0700
    Lines: 12
    Message-ID: <>
    MIME-Version: 1.0
    Content-Type: text/plain;
    Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit
    X-Newsreader: Microsoft CDO for Windows 2000
    Content-Class: urn:content-classes:message
    Importance: normal
    Priority: normal
    X-MimeOLE: Produced By Microsoft MimeOLE V6.00.3790.0
    Newsgroups: microsoft.public.windowsxp.basics
    NNTP-Posting-Host: TK2MSFTNGXA03.phx.gbl
    Path: TK2MSFTNGP08.phx.gbl!TK2MSFTNGXA01.phx.gbl!TK2MSFTNGXA03.phx.gbl
    Xref: TK2MSFTNGP08.phx.gbl microsoft.public.windowsxp.basics:238260
    Curious about other popular OS, but be afraid of mess. 
    Look here.  
    From the next screen top download (700MB) FREE and burn a Knoppix live CD, 
    and from this “short manual� for easy Linux/Knoppix and winxp co-existence go 
    “from zero to Linux in 1 day�: 
    Good luck 
    Here's a few things to think about if it is indeed you running around in the newsgroups posting this.

    The first thing is that somepeople are going to think this is SPAM and will report this and probably already have. This is going to be looked on, by the reporting agencies, as having the merits of unsolicited mail messages and they will add to the blacklists. I've been using Knoppix for ages (one of the earliest builds is actually the only one I tend to use and I use it for those days when I need to access the disk, don't have ERD handy, or don't have license to use ERD on that computer) and support the development of alternate operating systems even though I'm marginally affiliated with Microsoft® and support most of their actions. (No, not all of them and I'm not seeking to flame or troll but rather to quantify this and make you aware what might be problems with your actions.)

    Next, this sort of behavior looks bad. People are just starting to actually think about the use of *NIX as a desktop client and, more importantly, as a corporate desktop solution. The path ahead of *NIX is looking positive and the hopes of the originators are beginning to come to light. Setbacks, such as changing people's opinions by giving them negative responses, aren't going to help this cause at all. I think that you had the best intentions at heart and that your goal was to show that Knoppix and Windows could be used in tandem with each other and that you were trying to make the users of the Microsoft Windows® aware of the potentially beneficial relationship between the two operating systems.

    Finally, it's reasonably obvious that you support *NIX yet your post shows that you were, in fact, using Outlook Express to make post to the newsgroups. Most people won't know that as they're unlikely to review the headers unless it's to report you for SPAMing. For just a moment think about the average avid *NIX supporter's reaction to someone who came in and posted something that was seen as promotion of the Windows OS. What if, maybe, the person was seen as representing Microsoft and then went into the *NIX forum (perhaps one such as this) and urged people to try Windows instead? I don't think that people would appreciate it a great deal.

    The reason I post this is because I don't personally care either way BUT I don't want Knoppix effected by this. I'd hate to see the URL blacklisted or you get in trouble with your ISP for instance. I support spreading the word about alternate operating systems and believe that alternates provide a basis for competition and will better both products. In the end I think it will come down to personal preference as the realm of *NIX becomes closer and closer to that of being accepted by the average user as an alternative desktop solution.


    *Update: Please note that you were NOT using Outlook Express when I thought you were. I'd mis-read the header information. My bad. Rather than edit the comment out I'll simply admit my error here at the bottom. Ah well, sorry for mis-reading it.*

  10. #10
    Join Date
    Feb 2005
    Sydney Australia
    Video settings adjustment
    To adjust video settings open run and type: kxconfig ,
    sudo kxconfig ???

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