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Thread: No whole phisical memory, no 64bit

  1. #1
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    Question No whole phisical memory, no 64bit

    My Dell N5040 notebook had 2GB phisical memory. Yesterday it was added more 2GB.
    Code:
    root@Microknoppix:/home/knoppix# dmidecode -t 17
    # dmidecode 3.0
    Getting SMBIOS data from sysfs.
    SMBIOS 2.6 present.
    
    Handle 0x0016, DMI type 17, 28 bytes
    Memory Device
        Array Handle: 0x0014
        Error Information Handle: Not Provided
        Total Width: 64 bits
        Data Width: 64 bits
        Size: 2048 MB
        Form Factor: DIMM
        Set: None
        Locator: DIMM_A
        Bank Locator: DIMM_A
        Type: DDR3
        Type Detail: Synchronous
        Speed: 1333 MHz
        Manufacturer: AD80
        Serial Number: 35C7182F  
        Asset Tag: 1136           
        Part Number: HMT325S6CFR8C-H9  
        Rank: 1
    
    Handle 0x0018, DMI type 17, 28 bytes
    Memory Device
        Array Handle: 0x0014
        Error Information Handle: Not Provided
        Total Width: 64 bits
        Data Width: 64 bits
        Size: 2048 MB
        Form Factor: DIMM
        Set: None
        Locator: DIMM_B
        Bank Locator: DIMM_B
        Type: DDR3
        Type Detail: Synchronous
        Speed: 1333 MHz
        Manufacturer: 5D85
        Serial Number: 00000000  
        Asset Tag: 1430           
        Part Number: EBJ20UF8BDU0-GN-F 
        Rank: 1
    
    root@Microknoppix:/home/knoppix#
    But Knoppix see only 2,9G.
    Code:
    root@Microknoppix:/home/knoppix# free -h
                  total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available
    Mem:           2,9G        699M        743M        254M        1,5G        1,9G
    I tried "knoppix64", "mem=4096M", "nozram" (separate and together) cheatcodes, but nothing changed. While SystemRescCD in 64bit mode saw 3,7 GB memory.
    Actually I suppose what is the problem but it does not help me since I cannot resolve it. When I boot Knoppix in 64bit mode, it boots in 32bit mode... Since with "knoppix64" cheatcode I get:
    Code:
    knoppix@Microknoppix:~$ uname -m
    i686
    knoppix@Microknoppix:~$
    While using SystemRescCD in 64bit mode I got "x86_64".
    I run Knoppix 7.6.1 from ISO file.

  2. #2
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    Columbia, Maryland USA
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    Greetings.

    This is a puzzling report.

    I have a 64-bit Dell 1545 with 4 Gb ram and Knoppix 7.6.1 automatically realizes
    and provides a 64-bit kernel which recognizes all the ram. Its a Win7 machine, so it
    uses Legacy boot, not uefi.

    You might see if you can Legacy boot your machine and get around your problem that way.
    I know Win8 Dells have both legacy and uefi boot choices; maybe your machine does as well.

    Hope that helps.

  3. #3
    Junior Member
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    Aug 2011
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    9

    Smile

    My boot is quite different. On my HDD there is not installed any OS. I use only live systems (mainly Knoppix in live mode) run from ISO files copied to HDD. The boot is provided by an installed GRUB2 (made with SystemRescCD) and manually edited grub.cfg file.
    But reading your reply I have found the solution.
    This was the wrong menuentry in the grub.cfg file:
    Code:
    menuentry "KNOPPIX_V7.6.1DVD-2016-01-16-EN 64b hu London" {
        set ISO=boot-isos/KNOPPIX_V7.6.1DVD-2016-01-16-EN.iso
        loopback loop /$ISO
        linux (loop)/boot/isolinux/linux knoppix64 bootfrom=/dev/sda1/$ISO nostartsound noeject noprompt lang=hu tz=Europe/London --
        initrd (loop)/boot/isolinux/minirt.gz
    }
    The problem was that I should have used "linux64", not "linux". First I tried "linux64" and "knoppix64" but the system could not started. So here is the good version:
    Code:
    menuentry "KNOPPIX_V7.6.1DVD-2016-01-16-EN 64b hu London" {
        set ISO=boot-isos/KNOPPIX_V7.6.1DVD-2016-01-16-EN.iso
        loopback loop /$ISO
        linux (loop)/boot/isolinux/linux64 knoppix bootfrom=/dev/sda1/$ISO nostartsound noeject noprompt lang=hu tz=Europe/London --
        initrd (loop)/boot/isolinux/minirt.gz
    }
    Now Knoppix - like SystemRescCD - can see 3,7G.
    Code:
    knoppix@Microknoppix:~$ free -h
                  total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available
    Mem:           3,7G        241M        2,5G        143M        999M        3,2G
    Swap:          2,7G          0B        2,7G
    knoppix@Microknoppix:~$
    Thank you for your help.

  4. #4
    Junior Member
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    Solved

    Thank you. I use only live systems run from ISO files with manually installed GRUB2. Reading your post I found the solution. I should have used linux64 (instead of linux) in my grub.cfg file. By this way Knoppix see 3,7G total memory as SystemRescCD does.
    But quite many times the system crashed at "System setup OK" (boot screen). No matter if I used knoppix or knoppix64 cheatcode. The solution was applying "nozram". So, the right (hope) menuentry in the grub.cfg file:
    Code:
    menuentry "KNOPPIX_V7.6.1DVD-2016-01-16-EN 64b hu London" {
        set ISO=boot-isos/KNOPPIX_V7.6.1DVD-2016-01-16-EN.iso
        loopback loop /$ISO
        linux (loop)/boot/isolinux/linux64 knoppix nozram bootfrom=/dev/sda1/$ISO nostartsound noeject noprompt lang=hu tz=Europe/London --
        initrd (loop)/boot/isolinux/minirt.gz
    }
    Also sometimes (this is not related to 64bit kernel) after the boot screen does not start X but a black monitor. This issue I resolve by pressing the power button. Then X starts...
    Last edited by szzsqing1; 07-31-2016 at 08:45 PM.

  5. #5
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    Hello, again.
    I think you may have an unnecessary 'knoppix' cheatcode right after the knoppix64 cheatcode.
    I think you should see if deleting it helps a little.
    Used by itself, ' knoppix' cheatcode means 'use a 32-bit kernel'.

  6. #6
    Senior Member registered user
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    Quote Originally Posted by utu View Post
    Hello, again.
    I think you may have an unnecessary 'knoppix' cheatcode right after the knoppix64 cheatcode.
    I think you should see if deleting it helps a little.
    Used by itself, ' knoppix' cheatcode means 'use a 32-bit kernel'.
    Let me start over on this.

    I think you may need to review and possibly change your boot parameters.
    linux64 is a cheatcode for wine; knoppix is a cheatcode for 32-bit kernel.
    Knoppix 7.6.1 in uefi mode should automatically select a 64-bit kernel.
    I think what you may want here is to delete both uses of linux64 and knoppix and see if that works
    If not, then let your first cheatcode be knoppix64.

  7. #7
    Moderator Moderator
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    linux (loop)/boot/isolinux/linux knoppix64 ....
    With "ISO install to HD" you don't need the cheatcode "knoppix" or "knoppix64"; therefore you have to omit this cheatcode in this installation mode.. You already did your decision which Kernel you want using "../isolinux/linux" or "../isolinux/linux64".

    By the way: the cheatcode "nostartsound" isn't supported within the new Knoppix versions.

  8. #8
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    I have omitted knoppix64 and nostartsound cheatcodes. But the "nozram" is necessary. (Maybe because of my hardware?)
    My test results: (20 boots in both cases)
    1)
    Code:
    menuentry "KNOPPIX_V7.6.1DVD-2016-01-16-EN 64b hu London" {
        set ISO=boot-isos/KNOPPIX_V7.6.1DVD-2016-01-16-EN.iso
        loopback loop /$ISO
        linux (loop)/boot/isolinux/linux64 bootfrom=/dev/sda1/$ISO noswap  noeject noprompt lang=hu tz=Europe/London --
        initrd (loop)/boot/isolinux/minirt.gz
    }
    Code:
    knoppix@Microknoppix:~$ free -h
                  total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available
    Mem:           3,7G        102M        3,0G         76M        568M        3,4G
    Swap:          2,7G          0B        2,7G
    knoppix@Microknoppix:~$
    /home total: 2,9 GiB
    /tmp total: 2,0 GiB
    I use "noswap" because I do not have any swap partition or file (I do not want to use my HDD as memory).
    In this case Knoppix crashed 6 times. Crashed: the system crashed at the point "System Setup... OK" (boot screen). So that I could switch off the PC only by force (holding the power button down for seconds).
    2)
    Code:
    menuentry "KNOPPIX_V7.6.1DVD-2016-01-16-EN 64b hu London" {
        set ISO=boot-isos/KNOPPIX_V7.6.1DVD-2016-01-16-EN.iso
        loopback loop /$ISO
        linux (loop)/boot/isolinux/linux64 bootfrom=/dev/sda1/$ISO nozram noswap  noeject noprompt lang=hu tz=Europe/London --
        initrd (loop)/boot/isolinux/minirt.gz
    }
    Code:
    knoppix@Microknoppix:~$ free -h
                  total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available
    Mem:           3,7G         96M        3,0G         94M        605M        3,4G
    Swap:            0B          0B          0B
    knoppix@Microknoppix:~$
    /home total: 2,9 GiB
    /tmp total: 2,0 GiB
    In this case Knoppix crashed 0 times.
    I did tests with 32bit, too. But in this case there was no difference if I added "nozram" or not. (So I did not added.) With 32bit Knoppix crashes in other way but much more less. As I have said before, after the boot screen does not start X but only a black monitor.

    About the persistence (Category:Hard drive Installation) I have a question. How is executed the saving process into the knoppix-data.img file:
    1)
    continuously (I mean changes are written to HDD as we do it);
    2) or changes are written in memory and only at shutdown are saved to HDD (into the knoppix-data.img file).
    Although already I do not use any persistence, solving my "persistence" with scripts (to not carry forward the problems to the next boot), I am curious.
    Regarding to my way of persistence, I would have a request to Mr Klaus Knopper. If we boot Knoppix from ISO file, we found on the desktop "mnt-system" folder (as when using a DVD disc). But in this case it will be more useful an "mnt-iso" folder. For example, I store my persistence script (executed manually after boot) in the same partition with the Knoppix ISO file, and reaching it would be more faster.

  9. #9
    @szzsqing1

    It's interesting to see the result of Test Case 1 in which the swap device is still created even though the noswap parameter has been given. If the script, /etc/init.d/knoppix-autoconfig, is the only knoppix-specific script controlling the swap-related stuff, I reckon that the swap file/device is set up on the ram using zram module unless the knoppix.swp exists in either the folder of /mnt-system/KNOPPIX or /mnt-system. So in my option there is no need to worry too much about wearing out the NAND chips.

    -- snipped --

    /home total: 2,9 GiB
    /tmp total: 2,0 GiB

    -- snipped --
    Just out of curiosity, how are these figures(output) obtained?

  10. #10
    Junior Member
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    9
    @superman Yes, with "noswap" and with NOT "nozram", zram is used for swapping.
    Code:
    knoppix@Microknoppix:~$ free -h
                  total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available
    Mem:           3,7G        102M        2,9G        148M        636M        3,3G
    Swap:          2,7G          0B        2,7G
    knoppix@Microknoppix:~$ cat /proc/cmdline
    lang=de video=vga16fb:off apm=power-off nomce libata.force=noncq hpsa.hpsa_allow_any=1 loglevel=1 BOOT_IMAGE=(loop)/boot/isolinux/linux64 bootfrom=/dev/sda1/boot-isos/KNOPPIX_V7.6.1DVD-2016-01-16-EN.iso noswap noeject noprompt lang=hu tz=Europe/London --
    knoppix@Microknoppix:~$
    "/home total: 2,9 GiB": I simply started PCManFM and looked at status bar. I did this to see if there is any difference in sizes of home and tmp directories if there exists swap or not.

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