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Cheatcodes and hints

from Knoppix CD/DVD

                     CHEATCODES AND HINTS FOR KNOPPIX V7.3
==============================================================================
                         (last update: 07.02.2014)

These options (can be combined) work from the boot prompt:

### General ###
adriane                             Start blind-friendly, talking desktop
debug                               Debug boot process step-by-step
expert                              Interactive setup for experts
knoppix                             (Default) Knoppix startup
knoppix64                           Knoppix w/ 64bit Kernel
knoppix 2                           Runlevel 2, Textmode only

### Language/Country ###
knoppix lang=ch|cn|de|da|es|fr|it   specify language/keyboard
knoppix lang=nl|pl|ru|sk|tr|tw|us   specify language/keyboard
knoppix keyboard=us xkeyboard=us    Use different keyboard (text/X)
knoppix utc                         Use Universal Time [Hint: 1]
knoppix tz=Europe/Berlin            Use this timezone for TZ
                                    (default: tz=localtime)

### Hardware/Workarounds ###
knoppix ide1=reset                  Try this if knoppix can't find the
                                    CD/DVD drive on old computers [Hint: 4]
knoppix no{apic,lapic,acpi,apm}     Skip parts of HW-detection (1)
knoppix no{hwsetup,udev,dhcp,fstab} Skip parts of HW-detection (2)
knoppix no{pcmcia,sound,swap}       Skip parts of HW-detection (3) [Hint: 5]
knoppix nousb                       Skip parts of HW-detection (4)
knoppix nolapic                     Disable local APIC (differs from noapic)
knoppix noideraid                   Disable IDE-Raiddisk detection
knoppix pnpbios=off                 No PnP Bios initialization
knoppix acpi=off                    Disable ACPI Bios completely
knoppix acpi=noirq                  Disable ACPI IRC routing only
knoppix acpi=force                  FORCE ACPI Bios initialization
knoppix noacpid                     Do not start ACPI even daemon
failsafe                            Boot with (almost) no HW-detection
knoppix pci=irqmask=0x0e98          Try this, if PS/2 mouse doesn't work [Hint: 2]
knoppix pci=bios                    Workaround for bad PCI controllers
knoppix ide2=0x180 nopcmcia         Boot from PCMCIA-CD-Rom (some notebooks)
knoppix mem=512M                    Specify Memory size in MByte [Hint: 7]
knoppix wheelmouse                  Enable IMPS/2 protocol for wheelmice
knoppix nowheelmouse                Force plain PS/2 protocol for PS/2-mouse

### Desktop ###
knoppix desktop=kde|gnome|icewm     Use specified WM instead of LXDE (1)
knoppix desktop=fluxbox|openbox     Use specified WM instead of LXDE (2)
knoppix desktop=larswm|evilwm|twm   Use specified WM instead of LXDE (3)
knoppix no3d                        Don't use compiz 3d fuctions
knoppix 3d                          Try compiz even on slow cards w/o dri

### Graphics ###
knoppix screen=1280x1024            Use specified Screen resolution for X
knoppix hsync=95                    Use 95 kHz horizontal X refresh rate
knoppix vsync=60                    Use 60 Hz vertical refresh rate for X
knoppix xmodule=fbdev|vesa|svga     Use specified Xorg-Module (1)
knoppix xmodule=nouveau|radeon      Use specified Xorg-Module (2)
knoppix xmodule=intel|vmware|s3     Use specified Xorg-Module (3)
knoppix norandr                     Disable Xorg RandR feature (may be
                                    useful if wrong resolution was detected)
knoppix noddc                       Don't query monitor for resoution
knoppix nocomposite                 Don't use Xorg Composite extension
knoppix vga=normal                  No-framebuffer mode, but X
knoppix nodrm                       Don't load graphics acceleration modules
knoppix nofb                        Don't load framebuffer modules
knoppix nomodeset                   Don't use Kernel Mode Settings for X
fb1280x1024                         Use fixed framebuffer graphics (1)
fb1024x768                          Use fixed framebuffer graphics (2)
fb800x600                           Use fixed framebuffer graphics (3)
fb640x480                           Use fixed framebuffer graphics (4)

### Configuration / Persistent image ###
knoppix nonetworkmanager            Don't start network manager
knoppix toram                       Copy to RAM and run from there
knoppix tohd=/dev/sda1              Copy to Harddisk and run from there
knoppix fromhd=/dev/sda1            Boot from previously copied CD-Image
knoppix bootfrom=/dev/sda1/KNX.iso  Access image, boot from ISO-Image.
knoppix knoppix_dir=KNOPPIX         Directory to search for on the CD.
knoppix knoppix_name=KNOPPIX        Cloop-File to search for on the CD.
knoppix noswap                      Don't use existing swap partitions
knoppix nozram                      Don't use zram compressed swap-in-ram
knoppix forensic                    Don't use swap and mount read-only [Hint: 6]
knoppix secure                      Disable root access
knoppix noimage                     Ignore persistent image or partition

### Knoppix Terminalserver/Client ###
knoppix nfsdir=hostip:path          Use nfsdir as /mnt-system for TS client
knoppix hostname=name               Set TS client hostname
knoppix hostname=auto-mac           Set TS client hostname from MAC address
knoppix hostname=auto-clock         Set TS client hostname from clock

### Various ###
knoppix noeject                     Do NOT eject CD after halt
knoppix noprompt                    Do NOT prompt to remove the CD
knoppix testcd|testdvd              Check live medium for defects [Hint: 3]
knoppix splash                      Use splash.ppm in initrd as boot pic
knoppix trace                       create an open() trace in /open.trace

==============================================================================
Hint:
(1) Using the default DE-bootimage, SYSLINUX boots with german
keyboard layout. The '=' letter is located at Shift-0 on this keyboard
(just in case you want to change keyboard and language with lang=us). If
you need to change the keyboard layout later in X, and can't find a
convenient tool in the preferences, use "setxkbmap 'ca(multi)'" in order
to set up a new (multi-language canadian, in this example) keyboard
layout

(2) Try "knoppix pci=irqmask=0x0e98" if (you have an old notebook and)
your PS/2 mouse doesn't work, Possibly caused by a BIOS-flaw on your
board, BIOS updates can sometimes help.

(3) If your KNOPPIX CD produces strange noises during boot, or you see
frequent errors like "cloop: read error", or programs on your desktop
are crashing randomly, then your CD image is probably defective or
incomplete, or your CD-burner created a defective CD due to wrong
writing speed or bad media. This is actually the most common error
reported. Please boot with "knoppix testcd" to check if the CD or DVD is
OK. Installing and starting Knoppix from flash disk is recommended and
much faster than running from CD or DVD.

(4) In case of a failing hardware autodetection, try booting with any of
the "no-" options as shown in the table above, like in
   knoppix nodrm nomodeset no3d noaudio noapm noapic nolapic
           acpi=off pci=bios pnpbios=off nodma nopcmcia noscsi nousb ...
to skip some critical parts of the autodetection system.

(5)(6) The "noswap" and/or "forensic" boot option is useful for a
forensic analysis without touching existing swap partitions.

(7) Some Boards apparently don't pass the proper memory size to the
linux-kernel. It may cause the message "Panic: cannot mount root file
system" and the system hangs. Use "knoppix mem=512M" to solve that
problem if your system has 512MByte memory for example (caution:
you MUST use a capital "M" here).

==============================================================================
Tip:
(1) When installing to read/write media, such as flash disks (using
flash-knoppix), you can add a swap file in order to replace missing
physical RAM by persistent storage space. You can create this swap
file like this from the running system:
  dd if=/dev/zero of=/mnt-system/KNOPPIX/knoppix.swp
  mkswap /mnt-system/KNOPPIX/knoppix.swp
  swapon /mnt-system/KNOPPIX/knoppix.swp
Please be aware that swapping on flash media can be painfully slow, and
is no perfect replacement for real RAM. The zram ram-compression feature
(available from Knoppix 7.0.1) can extend the usable ram range to a
certain degree.

(2) If you need additional modules for starting controllers needed at boot
time, just copy the corresponding *.ko files from /lib/modules/* over to
/modules in the initial ramdisk (remaster needed).

(3) If you place an update*.zip or update*tar.gz file on the medium holding
the KNOPPIX data, it will be unpacked onto the overlayed filesystem
before starting "init", thus allowing quick reconfiguration of the
system.

(4) The file "knoppix.sh", if residing in the main KNOPPIX directory, will
be execuded after autoconfiguration and before starting the graphical
desktop. It can be used in order to start additional services.

(5) If you wish to remaster the CD, please don't forget to specify
    -no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table \
    -b boot/isolinux/isolinux.bin -c boot/isolinux/boot.cat
as option to mkisofs. Otherwise your CD or DVD won't be bootable. The
directory KNOPPIX, containig the compressed filesystem file "KNOPPIX",
must be located in the top level directory of the CD.

(6) Caution: X-Screensaver: Don't start xlock or any screensaver that
requires a password. There are no default passwords on KNOPPIX,
i.e. all accounts are LOCKED unless you explicitly set a password.
See also "SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR KNOPPIX" (README_Security.txt)
about this issue.

(7) If you accidentially hit the screensaver button in KDE,
switch to one of the textconsoles by Control-Alt-F1 and kill
the screensaver (or just set a password for the knoppix user).

(8) If you would like to edit your X-Server configuration manually
(config file /etc/X11/xorg.conf), use "knoppix 2" to boot
into runlevel 2 (textmode only) and, after changing the X
configuration, start the X environment with "init 5". Note that
you can always leave the graphical environment with "init 2", and
restart it later with "init 5".

More explanations

Cheatcodes are used to pass options to KNOPPIX to help with getting it working on difficult hardware. In the initial boot phase you'll see the Knoppix emblem with the little penguin and the commandline at the bottom of the screen. Type your cheatcodes after "boot: " in the commandline and press [Enter]. With [F2] and/or [F3] you can see some of the most usefull cheatcodes.

The format is "kernel option option option ...". Usually "knoppix" is the right selection for the "kernel". You can type more than one cheatcode before pressing enter. Also note that some options can take on values. Example:

 boot: knoppix mem=512 tz=America/Toronto
testcd 
Have a look also at Check the ISO
noapic nolapic ... 
Skip parts of Hardware-detection, In case of a failing hardware autodetection, try booting with any of the "no-" options as shown in the table above, like in
 boot: knoppix noagp noapm noapic nodma nopcmcia noscsi nousb

to skip some critical parts of the autodetection system.

noswap 
This option is useful for a forensic analysis without touching existing swap partitions.
nofstab 
By default Knoppix will look/scan the harddrives to see if there are partitions. If the harddrives do have partitions, Knoppix will automatically build a '/etc/fstab'-file and fill-in the appropriate partition entries and will also create the '/mnt/sdxy' mount points. The "nofstab" cheat code prevents this look/scan and prevents the generation of the '/etc/fstab' and its mount points.
nohwsetup 
Skip hardware detection (does not run hwsetup)
noprompt 
Its especially useful in combination with "noeject". With "noprompt", Knopix won't eject the CD and ask for a keypress.
nodhcp 
skip dhcp/network broadcast detection
tohd 
You can do a "Poor man's install" on vfat and ext-Partitions.
fromhd 
With this cheatcode the CD-Roms are ignored, so you can finally boot your "Poor man's install".
toram 
Knoppix will load the contents of the CD into RAM and run from there. After boot up, the CD can be removed and the cd drive will be available for other uses.
Note: Because this will take up a lot of RAM, it is recommended for those with at least 1 GB of RAM. Cheatcode "toram" and "fromhd" work now together.
bootfrom 
Access Image then boot from previously copied CD-Image (enables booting from NTFS / ReiserFS). After boot up, the CD can be removed.
Note: "bootfrom" needs access to a running Knoppix-System with the same Kernel as the Bootkernel, before it is able to mount the 'partition/ISO-Image'. This should allow a "Poor man's install" from NTFS-partitions and makes it also possible to boot an ISO-Image directly; so you can test remastered Knoppix iso files before committing to a burn.
expert 
Interactive setup for experts, The "expert" mode provides a very simple and not yet well tested interface to loading additional Kernel modules from floppy disks (ext2 or vfat), plus interactive configuration of mouse/keyboard/soundcard/xserver. "expert" mode supports the same boot options as "knoppix".
memtest 
Run memtest86 instead of Knoppix.
debug 
Pauses at various stages in the boot and shutdown processes. Type 'exit' to move on to the next stage.
nostartsound 
(not documented Cheatcode) supress startup and shutdown sound.


Micro-Remastering

Boot options like "adriane" can easily be preset by changing '/mnt-system/boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg' after having copied the CD to a bootable memorystick using "Knoppix => Install KNOPPIX to flash disk": Change the upper line

DEFAULT knoppix

to:

DEFAULT adriane

for automatically starting ADRIANE on boot. This is already default in all ADRIANE iso files.

To change other boot options look within the file 'syslinux.cfg' for the LABEL line of the way you always start with Knoppix. If you for example always use "knoppix" (and not "knoppix64") then look for "LABEL knoppix". Don't change the following KERNEL line but insert additional or change existent cheatcodes within the APPEND line. An example:

 LABEL knoppix
 KERNEL linux
 APPEND ramdisk_size=100000 lang=en keyboard=es xkeyboard=es apm=power-off ...
Note: If you are using Knoppix 64 bit, you have also to change the settings within '/mnt-system/boot/syslinux/syslnx64.cfg'.

Tips & Tricks

  • To prevent trouble while install Knoppix to flash disk or harddrive, check the integrity of the download.

Download Knoppix

Search at one of the Knoppix mirrors for the last version of Knoppix and download it with also its corresponding "...md5" und "...md5.asc" files. In our example:

KNOPPIX_V7.0.5CD-2012-12-21-EN.iso

KNOPPIX_V7.0.5CD-2012-12-21-EN.iso.md5

KNOPPIX_V7.0.5CD-2012-12-21-EN.iso.md5.asc

  • KNOPPIX_V7.0.5CD-2012-12-21-DE.iso is the german language version.
  • ADRIANE_KNOPPIX_V7.0.5CD-2012-12-21-EN.iso is a special version for blind peoples.

Check the ISO

The checksum "md5sum" is used in order to verify that the file downloaded is perfect and not corrupt.

 md5sum -c KNOPPIX_V7.0.5CD-2012-12-21-EN.iso.md5

Have a look also at Test without burning a CD

Exclude forgery

If there is ever an uncertainty as whether or not the ISO image file and its accompanying MD5 file are originals & untampered, then the .asc files are important. The .asc files are digital signature messages.

Look for the public key of Klaus Knopper:

 gpg --keyserver hkp://subkeys.pgp.net --search-keys "Klaus Knopper"

You'll get the message:

gpg: directory `/home/knoppix/.gnupg' created
gpg: new configuration file `/home/knoppix/.gnupg/gpg.conf' created
gpg: WARNING: options in `/home/knoppix/.gnupg/gpg.conf' are not yet active during this run
gpg: keyring `/home/knoppix/.gnupg/secring.gpg' created
gpg: keyring `/home/knoppix/.gnupg/pubring.gpg' created
gpg: searching for "Klaus Knopper" from hkp server subkeys.pgp.net
(1)    Klaus Knopper <knopper@linuxtag.de>
    Klaus Knopper <knopper@linuxtag.org>
      1024 bit RSA key BA8F038D, created: 2000-05-09
(2)    Klaus Knopper <info@knopper.net>
    Klaus Knopper <knopper@knopper.net>
    Klaus Knopper <knoppix@knopper.net>
      1024 bit DSA key 57E37087, created: 2000-05-06
(3)    Klaus Knopper <knopper@unix-ag.uni-kl.de>
      1024 bit RSA key D3892431, created: 1996-02-11
Keys 1-3 of 3 for "Klaus Knopper".  Enter number(s), N)ext, or Q)uit >
  • Select "2":
gpg: requesting key 57E37087 from hkp server subkeys.pgp.net
gpg: /home/knoppix/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg: trustdb created
gpg: key 57E37087: public key "Klaus Knopper <knopper@knopper.net>" imported
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:               imported: 1

Klaus Knopper has signed the "...md5" file with his secret key; we can verify this:

 gpg --verify KNOPPIX_V7.0.5CD-2012-12-21-EN.iso.md5.asc

and get:

gpg: Signature made Sat 22 Dec 2012 01:46:55 AM CET using DSA key ID 57E37087
gpg: Good signature from "Klaus Knopper <knopper@knopper.net>"
gpg:                 aka "Klaus Knopper <info@knopper.net>"
gpg:                 aka "Klaus Knopper <knoppix@knopper.net>"
gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
Primary key fingerprint: 0E57 3DA0 F139 69EF 1DD5  ACAA 3798 E3D7 57E3 7087

Look at md5sum for more informations.

Cannot boot

If you are unable to boot Knoppix (i.e. the screen goes blank, you see a kernel panic message, the screen flickers, you are dropped into a minimal shell, Knoppix simply freezes while booting, etc.), try these boot commands in order:

  • boot: knoppix vga=0
  • boot: knoppix acpi=off pnpbios=off noapic noapm

Helpful for laptops

  • boot: knoppix vga=0 debug -b 3

Using this boot command will cause Knoppix to pause at various stages in the boot process. Just type 'exit' at each shell prompt to move on to the next stage. You will know that you are at the final stage when you get the message:

INIT: Entering runlevel: 3

If you get that far, type 'init 5' to go into graphics mode.

  • boot: failsafe debug -b 3

That will do the same as the previous boot command, except turn off most of the hardware detection.

If you still have issues, please post in the Hardware & Booting forum, tell us which of the above boot commands you tried, and how far in the boot process you were able to get.

Troubleshooting

Most of the boot options are parsed by different programs and scripts during the booting process, roughly in this order:

  • the isolinux bootloader
  • the linux kernel
  • "init", which can be found in /mnt-system/boot/isolinux/minirt.gz -> init
  • /etc/init.d/knoppix-autoconfig
  • /etc/init.d/knoppix-startx
  • /etc/X11/Xsession.d/45knoppix
  • /etc/init.d/knoppix-halt

For more information on passing boot parameters to the kernel, see 'man boot' and 'man bootparam'.


Security considerations

from Knoppix CD/DVD

                       SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR KNOPPIX
                       ====================================

1.) There is no automatic start of external accessible services.

2.) There are no default passwords. All accounts are locked by default.
    Even local logins are not possible (unless you set a password or create
    new user accounts as root).

3.) Therefore, all local interactive processes are started by init without
    authorization.

    The graphical desktop is started with the unprivileged user id
    "knoppix". Programs that only work for root are started using sudo
    without password. This has the advantage of making faults caused by
    defective software very unlikely, but does not enhance local
    security, since it is fairly easy to switch between the "knoppix"
    and "root" account. The knoppix user should never be allowed for
    external logins (in the case that sshd or similar servers are being
    launched).

4.) You can create valid passwords using "sudo passwd [username]" from the
    Shell, individually.
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